Micro Hydro Power Terminology

1. Micro Hydro Power System (MHPS)
Flowing and falling water has potential energy that can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric power systems. Micro hydro power system is composed of two major parts: micro hydro power generator set, micro hydro power hydraulic building and engine room.
Micro-hydro power system is generally defined as a system with power generation less than 100KW. In China, the coverage of micro-hydro power generation is hydroelectric power generation systems with a single unit capacity of less than 500KW. Micro-hydro power systems not only provide electricity solutions for areas without electricity, but also are an important clean renewable energy source.


2. Water Head
Water head is also known as drop, which is the difference between the upper and lower water levels. Usually the difference between the upper and lower water levels measured before the construction of the station is called the gross water head; the drop occupied by the hydraulic structures before entering the turbine is collectively referred to as the diversion head; the tailwater channel for the discharge of the unit and the height required for flood control of the power station is collectively referred to as the tailwater head. The unit of head is meter.


3. Flow rate ( Discharge)
Flow rate is the volume of water flowing through a certain period of time. For micro-hydro power generation, it is the amount of water flowing through the turbine per unit time. The unit of flow is cubic meters per hour.


4. Micro Hydro Power Resources (Micro Hydro Power Resources)
Micro Hydro Power Resources is the potential energy (potential energy) of water in a stream or river within a certain length of the stream. Micro Hydro Power Resources consist of two basic elements: head and flow, and each micro hydro power resource has a specific uniqueness.


5. Micro Hydro Generator Unit 
Micro Hydro Generator Unit is a hydroelectric power generation equipment that converts the potential energy of micro-hydro resources into electrical energy that meets the power supply standard, which mainly consists of three components: micro-hydro turbine, generator and controller. The three components of micro hydro generator set are assembled and commissioned by the production plant at the place of origin, and the set supplied as a whole is called the whole set.

6. Impact turbine (Pelton Turbine)
Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine that uses the momentum of water to impact the rotation of the runner. This turbine is usually used in high head, low flow hydroelectric system. The impact turbine includes cut-strike turbine, slant-strike turbine, double-strike turbine, etc. 


7. Reaction Turbine
Reaction turbine is a hydraulic turbine that relies on reaction force to drive the rotation of the turbine. This turbine is usually used in low head, high flow hydroelectric power generation system. Reaction turbines include axial turbines, cross-flow turbines, Francis turbines, etc.

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