Technical highlights of Micro hydropower

1. Single-family micro hydropower unit
(1) Technical route
(2)Main technical links and points.

(1) Characteristics of each component and equipment. The core part is an integrated micro-hydro generator set, i.e., the turbine, generator, controller, and dummy load are assembled together to improve the convenience of installation and use for users.

②Key performance parameters of the technology.

Number of generator phases: single-phase.
Excitation mode: permanent magnet, third harmonic.
Generator synchronous speed: 1,500 rpm.

complete efficiency: 35% to 50%.
Rated output voltage: 230 volts.
Rated frequency: 50 Hz.

③ Matters needing attention to promote the technology. Single-family micro-hydro units are built and installed by the users themselves, requiring simple and effective training for users, with special attention to education on safe use of electricity. Equipment manuals should be popular, detailed and practical. There should be public welfare technical service institutions and repair outlets.

④ Main product development and application. Single-family micro hydropower units are complete sets of whole units, and the following models are the main single-family micro hydropower units with better performance in China at present.

(a) Axial-flow micro-hydropower complete sets of complete units: higher specific speed of hydraulic turbine, applicable to hydraulic resources with lower head and high flow, capable of automatic pressure and frequency stabilization, simple installation and convenient maintenance.

The price of 300-500 watt units, including inlet pipe interface and tail pipe, etc., is between RMB 1,500 and 2,000 per set. Power 1 kilowatt or more units, the price is between 2,000 to 3,000 yuan per kilowatt. To date, the promotion of the use of about 200 units.

(b) Pelton type micro-hydropower complete sets: the turbine has lower specific speed, applicable to hydraulic resources with higher head and smaller flow, capable of automatic pressure and frequency stabilization, simple installation and convenient maintenance.
The price of 300-500 watt units, including water inlet valves, is between 1200 and 1500 yuan per set. Power 1 kilowatt or more units, the price is between 2,000 to 3,000 yuan per kilowatt. By now the promotion of the use of about 500 units, has exported about 100 units.

(c) Crossflow micro hydropower complete sets: designed by the Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization of the Ministry of Agriculture, the turbine has a lower specific speed, applicable to 6-12 meters head and smaller flow of hydraulic resources, capable of automatic pressure and frequency stabilization, simple installation and easy maintenance.
300 ~ 500 watt unit, including the inlet valve, the price of each set is between l400 ~ 2000 yuan. The amount of promoted use so far is about 50 units.

Village-level networking type micro-hydro units

(1) technical route 
Main technical links and points.

The characteristics of each component and equipment. The micro-hydro generator set is a whole set, that is, the turbine and generator are assembled together, and it is more convenient to install the set.

② The main performance parameters of the technology.
Number of generator phases: single-phase, three-phase.
excitation mode: permanent magnet, third harmonic.
Generator synchronous speed: 1,500 rpm.
complete machine efficiency: 40% a 60%.
Rated output voltage: 230 volts / 400 volts.
Rated frequency: 50 hertz.
③ matters needing attention to promote the technology. Control system is more complex, control adjustment requires the presence of professionals. The erection of transmission lines also requires a licensed electrician on duty.
④Main product development and application.

(a) Shaft-extension cross-flow micro-hydropower unit: the price of the whole machine is about 3,000 yuan per kilowatt.

The products are promoted in Sichuan and Hunan, with a small amount of export. More than 20 units in total have been sold so far.

(b) Turgo type micro-hydropower complete unit: This equipment is suitable for hydraulic resources with higher head and smaller flow. Equipped with a permanent magnet generator, it has fewer failures and a long service life. 6 kW units are sold at 15,000 RMB and 10 kW units at 25,000 RMB.

(c) Axial-flow micro-hydro unit: This unit has high theoretical efficiency and is suitable for micro-hydro resources with 15 to 30 meters head and high flow rate. The price of the complete unit is about 3,000 yuan per kilowatt. Due to the high manufacturing technology difficulty and high price, it is less used at present.

3. Township-level grid-connected micro-hydropower units
(1) Technical route 
(2) Main technical links and points.
(1) The characteristics of each component and equipment. The micro-hydro generator set is mainly a complete unit, i.e., the turbine and generator are assembled together, equipped with a speed control device.

②The main performance parameters of the technology.

Number of generator phases: three-phase.

excitation mode: harmonic excitation, excitation generator.
Generator synchronous speed: 1,500, 1,000 rpm.
Overall efficiency: 60% to 75%.
Generator output voltage: 400 volts.
On-grid voltage: 10 kW.
Rated frequency: 50 Hz.


③ Matters needing attention to promote the technology. The construction of the power station needs formal design and professional technicians to manage the construction. Construction and grid connection need to go through relevant procedures with relevant departments.

④ Main product development and application.

Township-level grid-connected micro-hydro technology can basically draw on the mature technology of small hydropower equipment, but because of the small units and low profits, small hydropower equipment manufacturers are reluctant to accept micro-hydro orders in the case of more orders for the production of small hydropower equipment, and even less willing to do the modifications required by micro-hydro users to improve the ease of installation. Therefore, still can only rely on micro hydropower equipment manufacturers to supply.

(a) shaft extension cross-flow micro hydropower unit: the price of the whole machine is about 3,000 yuan per kilowatt. A 100 kW unit was installed in the renovation of Longbei Reservoir in Guzhang County, Hunan Province for electric irrigation, and it works very well.

(b) Slant-strike micro-hydropower complete unit: This equipment is suitable for hydraulic resources with higher head and smaller flow. Equipped with a special generator for hydropower, it has fewer failures and a long service life. The selling price of the unit is 15,000 to 25,000 yuan per kilowatt.


(c) Axial flow micro-hydropower unit: the unit has high theoretical efficiency and is suitable for micro-hydropower resources with 2 to 15 meters head and high flow.

微水电技术要点

1.单户型微水电机组
(1)技术路线(工艺流程)。
(2)主要技术环节及要点。

①各部件和设备的特点。核心部分是一体化的微型水力发电机组,即水轮机、发电机、控制器、假负载组装在一起,以提高用户安装和使用的方便性。

②技术的主要性能参数。

发电机相数:单相;
励磁方式:永磁、三次谐波;
发电机同步转速:1 500转/分;

整机效率:35%~50%;
额定输出电压:230伏;
额定频率:50赫兹。

③推广该项技术需要注意的事项。单户型微水电机组由用户自行建设安装,需要对用户进行简单而有效的培训,尤其注重安全用电的教育。设备使用说明书要通俗、详细、实用。要有公益性的技术服务机构和修理网点。

④主要产品研发和应用情况。单户型微水电机组是成套性整装机组,我国目前性能较好的单户型微水电机组主要有以下机型。

(a)轴流式微水电成套整装机组:水轮机比转速较高,适用水头较低、流量大的水力资源,能够自动稳压稳频,安装简单,维护方便。

300~500瓦机组,含进水管接口、尾水管等,每套价格在1500~2000元之间。功率1千瓦以上的机组,价格在每千瓦2000~3000元之间。到目前推广使用量约为200台。

(b)冲击式微水电成套整装机组:水轮机比转速较低,适用水头较高、流量较小的水力资源,能够自动稳压稳频,安装简单,维护方便。
300~500瓦机组,含进水阀门,每套价格在1200~1500元之间。功率1千瓦以上的机组,价格在每千瓦2000~3000元之间。到目前推广使用量约为500台,已出口约100台。

(c)双击式微水电成套整装机组:由农业部南京农业机械化研究所设计,水轮机比转速较低,适用6~12米水头、流量较小的水力资源,能够自动稳压稳频,安装简单,维护方便。
300~500瓦机组,含进水阀门,每套价格在l400~2000元之间。到目前推广使用量约为50台。

村级联网型微水电机组

(1)技术路线(工艺流程)
主要技术环节及要点。

各部件和设备的特点。微型水力发电机组为整装机组,即水轮机、发电机是组装在一起的,安装机组比较方便。

②技术的主要性能参数。
发电机相数:单相、三相;
励磁方式:永磁、三次谐波;
发电机同步转速:1 500转/分;
整机效率:40%一60%;
额定输出电压:230伏/400伏;
额定频率:50赫兹。
③推广该项技术需要注意的事项。控制系统较为复杂,控制调整需要专业人员到场。输电线路的架设也需要持证电工上岗。
④主要产品研发和应用情况。

(a)轴伸贯流式微水电机组:整机价格在每千瓦3000元左右。

产品在四川、湖南推广,有少量出口。目前总共销售了20多台机组。

(b)斜击式微水电整装机组:该设备适用于水头较高、流量较小的水力资源。配用永磁发电机,故障少,使用寿命长。6千瓦机组的售价为15000元,10千瓦机组的售价为25 000元。

(c)轴流式微水电机组:该机组理论效率高,适用15~30米水头、流量大的微水力资源。整装机组价格在每千瓦3 000元左右。由于制造技术难度较大,价格偏高,目前使用较少。

3.乡级并网型微水电机组
(1)技术路线(工艺流程)。
(2)主要技术环节及要点。
①各部件和设备的特点。微型水力发电机组以整装机组为主即水轮机、发电机是组装在一起的,配有调速装置。

②技术的主要性能参数。

发电机相数:三相;

励磁方式:谐波励磁、励磁发电机;
发电机同步转速:1 500、1 000转/分;
整机效率:60%~75%;
发电机输出电压:400伏;
上网电压:10千瓦;
额定频率:50赫兹。
③推广该项技术需要注意的事项。电站建设需要正规设计,专业技术人员管理施工。建设和并网需要向有关部门办理相关手续。

④主要产品研发和应用情况。乡级并网型微水电技术基本上可以借鉴小水电设备的成熟技术,但由于机组小、利润低,在小水电设备生产订单较多的情况下,小水电设备生产企业不愿意接受微水电订货,更不愿意按微水电用户的要求,做提高安装方便性的改型。因此,还是只能依靠微水电设备生产企业供货。

(a)轴伸贯流式微水电机组:整机价格每千瓦3000元左右。在湖南古丈县龙鼻水库的以电养灌改造中安装了一台100千瓦机组,使用效果很好。

(b)斜击式微水电整装机组:该设备适用于水头较高、流量较小的水力资源。配用水电专用发电机,故障少,使用寿命长。机组每千瓦的售价为15000~25 000元。
(c)轴流式微水电机组:机组理论效率高,适用2~15米水头、流量大的微水力资源。

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