1. Input estimates for each technology model
Micro hydropower construction investment varies greatly depending on the natural conditions. In general, the independent operation of the micro-hydro power supply system per kilowatt of construction investment in l million yuan, the use of funds to allocate the proportion of the relationship is: equipment (including units and metal components) accounted for 30%, hydraulic construction accounted for 40%, wire erection accounted for 30%. If it is some demanding demonstration projects, all by the regular engineering and technology team construction, plus the work of technical experts, the user inside the wire installation labor costs, etc., the cost will reach about 20,000 yuan per kilowatt.
Grid-connected micro-hydro power station, eliminating the need for transmission lines, the construction investment per kilowatt is about 7,000 yuan. If it is “electricity for irrigation” project, most of the hydraulic construction by the farmland water conservancy construction, micro hydropower station construction input can be reduced to about 4,000 yuan per kilowatt.
2. Analysis of the benefits of each technology model
(1) independent operation of power supply micro-hydropower. Independent operation of micro hydropower annual power generation time calculated by 9 months should be 6,570 hours, that is, the annual power generation capacity of each kilowatt installed capacity of 6570 kilowatt hours, effective electricity rate of 40%, calculated at 0.5 yuan per kilowatt hour, the annual power generation income should be 1314 yuan. In the case of not calculating the management and maintenance expenses, the payback period is 7.6 years. In general, the payback time should be more than 10 years.
The social benefit is that each kilowatt of installed power can solve the problem of 4 households (12-15 people), but there are still two or three months of the year without water and electricity, and other power sources are needed.
The energy benefit is 263 kWh of electricity per kilowatt per year for the installed machine.
(2) “Electricity for irrigation” grid-connected operation of micro-hydropower. A simple illustration is given as an example of a small type II reservoir in Yudian Township, Jinzhai County, Liuan City, Anhui Province. The local power generation households to get 0.34 yuan per kilowatt hour of online electricity prices. This 0.34 yuan, according to the national small hydropower tax policy to pay 6% tax, each kilowatt hour should be 0.02 yuan; to the Water Resources Bureau water resources use fee of 0.01 yuan per kilowatt hour; the relevant government departments to charge management fees per kilowatt hour 0.03 yuan; power companies need to pay back the loan for the construction of the power grid for each kilowatt hour to charge 0.03 yuan for the construction of the power grid loan; the actual income of power generation households for each kilowatt hour 0.25 yuan. Yuan.
The small type II reservoir in Yaodian Township irrigates 33 hectares of paddy fields and has a 100-kilowatt micro-hydro power station. The construction cost of the micro-hydro power station (at current prices) is estimated at 400,000 yuan. According to the power generation households, the micro-hydro power station has an annual power generation time, which translates into 4,000 hours of full-load power generation time. The annual revenue from the sale of the reservoir is 136,000 yuan, of which: 100,000 yuan of revenue from the power generation households; the state receives 8,000 yuan of tax revenue; the power company receives 1.2 million yuan of loan repayment fees for the construction of the network, in addition to the local power supply price of 0.56 yuan / kWh, the power company has 0.22 yuan / kWh, that is, 8.8 million yuan of the difference between the purchase and sale; the Water Resources Bureau to collect 4,000 yuan of water resources use fees; relevant government departments The management fee is RMB 1.2 million.
Social benefits: The power producer acts as the main body of farmland water conservation and undertakes the daily management and maintenance of reservoirs and canals. Since the irrigation charge of 33 hectares of paddy fields is only about 7,500 yuan if calculated at 225 yuan per hectare per year, which only accounts for a fraction of 13.6 million yuan of power generation revenue, the irrigation charge for farmers is completely exempted.
Energy benefits: 400,000 kWh of electricity is obtained each year, improving the local rural electricity shortage.
Environmental benefits: A small type II reservoir has functioned properly and stabilized the water flow in the downstream section of the river. Due to the improvement of power supply, local farmers generally use electric rice cookers, microwave ovens and other cooking utensils, reducing the amount of fuel wood.
3. Suitable promotion analysis From the analysis of the flow of products sold by micro hydropower equipment manufacturers in recent years, three types of user groups exist for micro hydropower.
The first category is the households without electricity in mountainous areas, using micro hydropower to solve the problem of living electricity for their own families. With the vigorous promotion of China’s rural power grid transformation, the trend of this type of users is declining year by year, there are still about 20 million people without electricity in China, mostly living in the deep mountains and forests, the promotion of micro-hydro technology is difficult and costly. In the international market, the proportion of people without electricity in developing countries is much larger than in China, with a total population of about 1.6 billion, and the sales of micro-hydropower equipment in the international market have been on the rise in recent years. 2006, Dali Lida Energy Institute of Practical Technology sold more than 2 million yuan of micro-hydropower equipment, with exports accounting for 90% of the total.
The second category is micro hydropower generation households that aim to increase their income. Most of these people are rural electricians or plumbers, with a certain professional knowledge base and management experience, but lack of capital. Can only rely on the local water conservancy facilities or old station transformation, engage in micro-hydro power generation with little investment, its installed capacity between 5 to 500 kilowatts. Revenue from the sale of electricity varies from a few thousand to several hundred thousand yuan per year. This is a group in great need of policy support and technical guidance.
The third category is the long-term continuous drainage of water to the outside of the enterprise for hydroelectric power recovery. Such as sewage treatment plants, high terrain water plants, etc.. Through self-generation and self-consumption can save hundreds of thousands of yuan of electricity expenditure each year. These users are fewer, but because their affordability is stronger than farmers, they need high-end equipment, which has a considerable drag on the technical development of the industry.
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Water Resources in recent years, the installed capacity of micro-hydro power in China is close to 8 million kilowatts, of which about 200,000 micro-hydro power units below 10 kilowatts, with a total installed capacity of 220,000 kilowatts; 19,545 micro-hydro power stations of 10-100 kilowatts, with 21,620 units and a total installed capacity of 690,610,000 kilowatts; 100 There are 19,107 micro-hydropower stations of 100-500 kilowatts, with 38,652 units and a total installed capacity of 7.18 million kilowatts, of which the majority of those below 30 kilowatts are off-grid independent power supply, while most of those above 50 kilowatts are grid-connected.
If calculated according to the rural per capita possession of electricity 200 watts (Ministry of Water Resources rural electrification standards), the rural population involved in micro-hydropower has now reached more than 40 million people with electricity.