1. Input estimates for each technology model

Micro hydropower construction investment varies greatly depending on the natural conditions. In general, the independent operation of the micro-hydro power supply system per kilowatt of construction investment in l million yuan, the use of funds to allocate the proportion of the relationship is: equipment (including units and metal components) accounted for 30%, hydraulic construction accounted for 40%, wire erection accounted for 30%. If it is some demanding demonstration projects, all by the regular engineering and technology team construction, plus the work of technical experts, the user inside the wire installation labor costs, etc., the cost will reach about 20,000 yuan per kilowatt.

Grid-connected micro-hydro power station, eliminating the need for transmission lines, the construction investment per kilowatt is about 7,000 yuan. If it is “electricity for irrigation” project, most of the hydraulic construction by the farmland water conservancy construction, micro hydropower station construction input can be reduced to about 4,000 yuan per kilowatt.

2. Analysis of the benefits of each technology model

(1) independent operation of power supply micro-hydropower. Independent operation of micro hydropower annual power generation time calculated by 9 months should be 6,570 hours, that is, the annual power generation capacity of each kilowatt installed capacity of 6570 kilowatt hours, effective electricity rate of 40%, calculated at 0.5 yuan per kilowatt hour, the annual power generation income should be 1314 yuan. In the case of not calculating the management and maintenance expenses, the payback period is 7.6 years. In general, the payback time should be more than 10 years.

The social benefit is that each kilowatt of installed power can solve the problem of 4 households (12-15 people), but there are still two or three months of the year without water and electricity, and other power sources are needed.

The energy benefit is 263 kWh of electricity per kilowatt per year for the installed machine.

(2) “Electricity for irrigation” grid-connected operation of micro-hydropower. A simple illustration is given as an example of a small type II reservoir in Yudian Township, Jinzhai County, Liuan City, Anhui Province. The local power generation households to get 0.34 yuan per kilowatt hour of online electricity prices. This 0.34 yuan, according to the national small hydropower tax policy to pay 6% tax, each kilowatt hour should be 0.02 yuan; to the Water Resources Bureau water resources use fee of 0.01 yuan per kilowatt hour; the relevant government departments to charge management fees per kilowatt hour 0.03 yuan; power companies need to pay back the loan for the construction of the power grid for each kilowatt hour to charge 0.03 yuan for the construction of the power grid loan; the actual income of power generation households for each kilowatt hour 0.25 yuan. Yuan.

The small type II reservoir in Yaodian Township irrigates 33 hectares of paddy fields and has a 100-kilowatt micro-hydro power station. The construction cost of the micro-hydro power station (at current prices) is estimated at 400,000 yuan. According to the power generation households, the micro-hydro power station has an annual power generation time, which translates into 4,000 hours of full-load power generation time. The annual revenue from the sale of the reservoir is 136,000 yuan, of which: 100,000 yuan of revenue from the power generation households; the state receives 8,000 yuan of tax revenue; the power company receives 1.2 million yuan of loan repayment fees for the construction of the network, in addition to the local power supply price of 0.56 yuan / kWh, the power company has 0.22 yuan / kWh, that is, 8.8 million yuan of the difference between the purchase and sale; the Water Resources Bureau to collect 4,000 yuan of water resources use fees; relevant government departments The management fee is RMB 1.2 million.

Social benefits: The power producer acts as the main body of farmland water conservation and undertakes the daily management and maintenance of reservoirs and canals. Since the irrigation charge of 33 hectares of paddy fields is only about 7,500 yuan if calculated at 225 yuan per hectare per year, which only accounts for a fraction of 13.6 million yuan of power generation revenue, the irrigation charge for farmers is completely exempted.

Energy benefits: 400,000 kWh of electricity is obtained each year, improving the local rural electricity shortage.

Environmental benefits: A small type II reservoir has functioned properly and stabilized the water flow in the downstream section of the river. Due to the improvement of power supply, local farmers generally use electric rice cookers, microwave ovens and other cooking utensils, reducing the amount of fuel wood.

3. Suitable promotion analysis From the analysis of the flow of products sold by micro hydropower equipment manufacturers in recent years, three types of user groups exist for micro hydropower.

The first category is the households without electricity in mountainous areas, using micro hydropower to solve the problem of living electricity for their own families. With the vigorous promotion of China’s rural power grid transformation, the trend of this type of users is declining year by year, there are still about 20 million people without electricity in China, mostly living in the deep mountains and forests, the promotion of micro-hydro technology is difficult and costly. In the international market, the proportion of people without electricity in developing countries is much larger than in China, with a total population of about 1.6 billion, and the sales of micro-hydropower equipment in the international market have been on the rise in recent years. 2006, Dali Lida Energy Institute of Practical Technology sold more than 2 million yuan of micro-hydropower equipment, with exports accounting for 90% of the total.

The second category is micro hydropower generation households that aim to increase their income. Most of these people are rural electricians or plumbers, with a certain professional knowledge base and management experience, but lack of capital. Can only rely on the local water conservancy facilities or old station transformation, engage in micro-hydro power generation with little investment, its installed capacity between 5 to 500 kilowatts. Revenue from the sale of electricity varies from a few thousand to several hundred thousand yuan per year. This is a group in great need of policy support and technical guidance.

The third category is the long-term continuous drainage of water to the outside of the enterprise for hydroelectric power recovery. Such as sewage treatment plants, high terrain water plants, etc.. Through self-generation and self-consumption can save hundreds of thousands of yuan of electricity expenditure each year. These users are fewer, but because their affordability is stronger than farmers, they need high-end equipment, which has a considerable drag on the technical development of the industry.

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Water Resources in recent years, the installed capacity of micro-hydro power in China is close to 8 million kilowatts, of which about 200,000 micro-hydro power units below 10 kilowatts, with a total installed capacity of 220,000 kilowatts; 19,545 micro-hydro power stations of 10-100 kilowatts, with 21,620 units and a total installed capacity of 690,610,000 kilowatts; 100 There are 19,107 micro-hydropower stations of 100-500 kilowatts, with 38,652 units and a total installed capacity of 7.18 million kilowatts, of which the majority of those below 30 kilowatts are off-grid independent power supply, while most of those above 50 kilowatts are grid-connected.

If calculated according to the rural per capita possession of electricity 200 watts (Ministry of Water Resources rural electrification standards), the rural population involved in micro-hydropower has now reached more than 40 million people with electricity.

# 微水电投入产出经济效益分析

1．各技术模式的投入概算

微水电的建设投资因自然条件不同而差异较大。在一般情况下，独立运行的微水电供电系统每千瓦的建设投资在l万元左右，其经费使用分配比例关系是：设备(包括机组和金属构件)占30％，水工建筑占40％，电线架设占30％。如果是一些要求较高的示范工程，全部由正规的工程技术队伍施工，再加上技术专家的工作费、用户内线安装工料费等，其费用就会达到每千瓦2万元左右。

并网运行的微水电站，省去了输电线路的架设，每千瓦的建设投资为7000元左右。如果是“以电养灌”工程，水工建筑大部分由农田水利建设承担，微水电站的建设投入可降至每千瓦4000元左右。

2．各技术模式的效益分析

(1)独立运行供电的微水电。独立运行微水电的年发电时间按9个月计算应为6 570小时，即每千瓦装机容量的年发电能力为6570千瓦时，有效用电率40％，以每千瓦时0．5元计算，则年发电收入应为1314元。在不计算管理和维修经费的情况下，投资回收年限为7．6年。在一般情况下投资回收年限都要超过10年。

社会效益为装机每千瓦可解决4户(12～15人)的生活用电问题，但每年有两三个月的时间仍然没有水电，需要其他电源补充。

能源效益为装机每千瓦每年获得263千瓦时电力。

(2)“以电养灌”并网运行微水电。以安徽省六安市金寨县油店乡小二型水库为例作一个简单的说明。当地发电户争取到了每千瓦时0．34元的上网卖电价格。这0．34元中，按照国家小水电税收政策上缴6％的税收，每千瓦时应为0．02元；交水利局水资源使用费每千瓦时0．01元；政府有关部门收取管理费每千瓦时0．03元；电力公司以需要还建电网贷款为由每千瓦时收取建电网还贷费0，03元；发电户的实际收益为每千瓦时0．25元。

油店乡小二型水库灌溉水田33公顷，建有100千瓦微水电站I座。微水电站的建设费用(按现行价格)估计为40万元。据发电户反映，该微水电站年发电时间，折算成满负荷发电时间有4000小时。该项水库每年的卖电收益为13．6万元，其中：发电户收益10万元；国家获得税收8000元；电力公司获得建网还贷费1．2万元，此外当地供电电价为0．56元／千瓦时，供电公司还有0．22元／千瓦时，即8．8万元的买卖差价；水利局收水资源使用费4000元；政府相关部门收取管理费1．2万元。

社会效益：发电户充当了农田水利的养护主体，承担了水库水渠的日常管理与养护工作。由于33公顷水田的灌溉收费如果按每年每公顷收费225元计算，也只有7500元左右，只占13．6万元发电收益的零头，因此对农民的灌溉收费就全免了。

能源效益：每年获得电力40万千瓦时，改善了当地农村电力紧缺的现象。

环境效益：一个小二型水库正常发挥了作用，稳定了下游河段的水流情况。由于供电情况的改善，当地农民普遍用上了电饭煲、微波炉等炊具，减少了薪柴用量。

3.适宜推广情况分析 从微水电设备生产企业近几年销售产品的流向分析，微水电存在三类用户群体：

第一类是山区的无电户，用微水电解决自家的生活用电问题。随着我国农村电网改造的大力推进，该类用户呈逐年下降的趋势，目前国内无电人口尚有2000万人左右，大都散居在深山老林，推广微水电技术难度大，成本高。在国际上发展中国家的无电人口比例远大于中国，总人口约在16亿左右，近年国际市场微水电设备的销售呈上升趋势。2006年大理力达能源实用技术研究所200多万元的微水电设备销售中，出口占了90％。

第二类是以增加收入为目的的微水电发电户。这类人多数是农村的电管员或水管员，有一定的专业知识基础和管理经验，但缺少资金。只能依靠当地的水利设施或旧站改造，搞投资不大的微型水力发电，其装机容量在5～500千瓦之间。卖电收入每年在几千元到几十万元不等。这是一个非常需要政策扶持和技术引导的群体，

第三类是长期连续向外排水的企业，进行水力回收发电。如污水处理厂、地势居高的自来水厂等。通过自发自用每年可以节省几十万元的电费支出。这类用户虽然较少，但由于其经济承受能力比农民强，需要的都是高端设备，对行业的技术发展有相当大的拖动作用。

根据农业部和水利部最近几年的统计，我国微水电的装机容量已经接近了800万千瓦，其中10千瓦以下微水电机组约20万台，总装机容量22万千瓦；10—100千瓦的微水电站19545座，机组21 620台，总装机容量69．61万千瓦；100—500千瓦的微水电站19107座，机组38652台，总装机容量718万千瓦，其中30千瓦以下的绝大多数为离网独立供电，50千瓦以上的则大多数为并网运行。

如果按照农村人均拥有电力200瓦(水利部农村电气化标准)计算，现在微水电涉及的农村用电人口已经达到了4000万人以上。